Model of experts for decision support in the diagnosis of leukemia patients
Fecha de publicación
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. Volumen 46 (3), pp. 179-200. Elsevier BV.
Objective: Recent advances in the field of biomedicine, specifically in the field of genomics, have led to an increase in the information available for conducting expression analysis. Expression analysis is a technique used in transcriptomics, a branch of genomics that deals with the study of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and the extraction of information contained in the genes. This increase in information is reflected in the exon arrays, which require the use of new techniques in order to extract the information. The purpose of this study is to provide a tool based on a mixture of experts model that allows the analysis of the information contained in the exon arrays, from which automatic classifications for decision support in diagnoses of leukemia patients can be made. The proposed model integrates several cooperative algorithms characterized for their efficiency for data processing, filtering, classification and knowledge extraction. The Cancer Institute of the University of Salamanca is making an effort to develop tools to automate the evaluation of data and to facilitate de analysis of information. This proposal is a step forward in this direction and the first step toward the development of a mixture of experts tool that integrates different cognitive and statistical approaches to deal with the analysis of exon arrays. The mixture of experts model presented within this work provides great capacities for learning and adaptation to the characteristics of the problem in consideration, using novel algorithms in each of the stages of the analysis process that can be easily configured and combined, and provides results that notably improve those provided by the existing methods for exon arrays analysis. Material and methods: The material used consists of data from exon arrays provided by the Cancer Institute that contain samples from leukemia patients. The methodology used consists of a system based on a mixture of experts. Each one of the experts incorporates novel artificial intelligence techniques that improve the process of carrying out various tasks such as pre-processing, filtering, classification and extraction of knowledge. This article will detail the manner in which individual experts are combined so that together they generate a system capable of extracting knowledge, thus permitting patients to be classified in an automatic and efficient manner that is also comprehensible for medical personnel. Results and conclusion: The system has been tested in a real setting and has been used for classifying patients who suffer from different forms of leukemia at various stages. Personnel from the Cancer Institute supervised and participated throughout the testing period. Preliminary results are promising, notably improving the results obtained with previously used tools. The medical staff from the Cancer Institute considers the tools that have been developed to be positive and very useful in a supporting capacity for carrying out their daily tasks. Additionally the mixture of experts supplies a tool for the extraction of necessary information in order to explain the associations that have been made in simple terms. That is, it permits the extraction of knowledge for each classification made and generalized in order to be used in subsequent classifications. This allows for a large amount of learning and adaptation within the proposed system.
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