Sasamón (Burgos, España)
Fotografía aérea en arqueología
5504.01 Historia Antigua
Fecha de publicación
L’erma di Brestchneider
García Sánchez, J. & Costa-García, J. M. (2022). Segisamo. In T. Nogales Basarrate (Ed.), Ciudades Romanas de Hispania II. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, pp. 181-191.
Serie / N.º
Hispania Antigua. Serie Arqueológica;14
[EN]Studying the archaeological landscapes in the Sasamón area is relevant to understanding the Roman expansion in the river Duero basin from the 1st c. BC onwards. The Late Iron Age settlement pattern was characterized here by the leading role of large fortified sites -the oppida- where the population was clustered, and the existence of vast empty territories around them. This structure reflects a pre-Roman social organization based on warfare and military elite competition. Recent archaeological research links the abrupt end of this dynamic in the study area with a previously unknown episode of violence. The Roman military structures sieging the oppidum of Cerro de Castarreño provide a radically new understanding of the Roman-native interactions in the area during the last centuries BC and defy the traditional historical narrative where the local Turmogi were depicted as Roman allies. The foundation of the Roman city below modern-day Sasamón probably took part once the conquest of Iberia came to an end and emperor Augustus carried out the enormous task of reorganizing its northernmost territories in the last decades of the 1st c. BC. Although this is a poorly known period in archaeological terms, both the indigenous substratum and the Roman military presence can be detected in the material record related to the city’s early days. Until recently, even the actual name of this newly founded nucleus was a debated subject: some ancient written sources could lead us to opt for the variant Segisama or Segisama Iulia, but the itineraria and epigraphic documents point towards Segisamo as a preferable denomination.The research carried out by us in recent years falls within the framework of non-destructive or non-invasive archaeology and follows the principles of Landscape Archaeology. In this way, we have sought to relate the dynamics of use and occupation of the rural environment with those of urban life. Since this is an eminently plain area dedicated to cereal production, our methodological approach takes advantage of the full potential of remote sensing techniques -satellite imagery, aerial RGB and multispectral orthophotography, UAV -derived photogrammetry- and geophysical survey -magnetometry, GPR. Test pit or trench excavations were carried out to resolve specific archaeological problems. So far, the hypothetical reconstruction of Segisamo reveals the city occupied an area of ca. 20 ha and was divided by an urban grid that used a module of 1 by 2 Roman actus. Nevertheless, this system was not entirely regular. The prolongation of the Roman road between Segisamo and Pisoraca (Herrera de Pisuerga) seems to have served as decumanus maximus. Crossing the city from west to east, this urban way connected with the cursus publicus leading to Clunia (Coruña del Conde) -the conventual capital- and Aquitania. The city’s political, administrative and religious epicentre was probably located in the vicinity of the modern church of Santa María La Real. Despite the progress made in recent years concerning the urban grid, very little is known about the public -either administrative, religious or ludic- and private architectures. In areas such as Veladiez, our research led to discovering a previously unknown urban domus and insulae. The detection of other structures through geophysical surveys or the recent publication of a possible thermal complex help better understand ancient urban planning. Other research carried out in recent years gives us a better insight into some aspects of the city’s public infrastructure. That is the case of the two aqueducts connecting Segisamo with the calcareous barren located to the east or the central role played by the city within the Roman road system that connected northern Iberia with Aquitania.
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