Génese, apogeu e declínio das fortifcações calcolíticas da Extremadura
Fecha de publicación
Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca (España)
Zephyrus, 50 (1997)
[ES] En este artículo se presenta un análisis de las condiciones de tipo socioeconómico que determinarán el origen y el desarrollo de las fortificaciones calcolíticas en la Extremadura Portuguesa, unos 2800 a.C. En la interpretación de los acontecimientos, se considera determinante la evolución interna de las propias comunidades que habitarán la región, al menos desde el neolítico final, caracterizadas por un sistema agro-pastoral de creciente complejidad y diversificación.[EN] In this work, we shall present an analysis of the social and economic conditions which determined, at the beginning of the Chalcolithic period in Portuguese Estremaclura, about 2800 BC, the emergence of fortified settlements. We shall refer both explanations of previous authors that evoke the direct presence or influence of exogenous populations and those which refute them. Conditions of internal nature, inherent to the evolution of the agro-pastoral system could explain the advent of Leceia, as well as of other estremacluran chalcolithic fortifications. We shall discuss some reasons for the decline of these imponent defensive structures which, in as far as Leceia is concerned, we can date to as far back as 2600 BC. The rise of the demographic pressure on an increasingly exploited territory aroud each settlement, may have generated a situation of conflict which was latent and constant during all Chalcolithic period, due to the absence of a centralised ruler power. The consequence of this fact was a generalized decline of all fortified places, wich was contemporary but independent with the arrival of the first Beaker populations, whose coexistence with the inhabitants of the fortified settlements was suggested not only by the radiocarbon dates obtained at Leceia but also by the archaeological record itself.